The scientists used 259 simulations to gather their data. From these 259 simulations, the scientists came to realize that there was a period where the Earth was hit by an object the size of Mars that created the moon. This impact left a large amount of new material in the Earth’s crust. This mass of material left over gave the scientists detailed information that works much like a clock. This “geologic clock” allowed the scientists to date the impact event that created the Moon.
Scientists in the past have demonstrated that the Earth’s mantle is made up of an abundance of siderophile elements. These elements are high density transition metals which dissolve readily in iron and are proportional to the mass that the Earth gained after the Moon-forming event. Other scientists have also attempted to discover the Moon’s age using the measurement of radioactive decay of atomic nuclei that are found in rocks.
The solar system is known to be around 4.567 billion years in age. This information was discovered by accurately dating meteorite components that had impacted with the Earth. Earth was formed during the first 150 million years of the creation of the solar system. As the solar system and the rest of the universe was being bombarded by gigantic celestial objects that were flying at high-speeds across the galaxies, one Mars-sized object hit Earth and formed the Moon as early as 95 million years after the solar system had formed.